overshot water wheel

Today's politically created energy "crisis" has had at least one good effect: It's inspired a good many backyard tinkerers to unplug themselves from modern society's increasingly expensive "conventional" sources of energy .

To extract maximum power from any given flow of water with an overshot wheel is largely a matter of calculating the proper depth and angle of the buckets placed around the wheel's rim (ideally, each bucket must be completely filled at top center and then carry its load of water without spilling a drop until just the instant it passed bottom center . The system was carefully engineered, and was worked by individuals treading slats at the side of each wheel. .

Hi, thanks for stopping by. and you're in business. . When you buy a manufactured water wheel, a large portion of the purchase price goes to pay for the equipment's design. International Subscribers - Click Here 13 and 14. and then flumed the water from the top of that dam to a spot 120 feet further downstream where the creek's banks were an additional tour feet lower. By paying with a credit card, you save an additional $5 and get 6 issues of MOTHER EARTH NEWS for only $12.95 (USA only). .

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it would be a slough or a lake). pump water from a spring to a set of farm buildings 100 feet above. It is described by Vitruvius in his work De architectura published circa 25 BC.

That they stood suggests that they operated the wheels by standing on the top to turn the cleats, and continuous working would produce a steady stream of water. That's why we want you to save money and trees by subscribing through our earth-friendly automatic renewal savings plan. As the water wheel's main shaft rotates, then, the 15-inch gear attached to it also rotates smoothly. "One, unlike the hydraulic ram pumps featured several times in MOTHER, it doesn't use gallons and gallons of our drinking water just to pump a few gallons up the hill.

Rosemary Gladstar's Herbal Recipes For Vibrant Health, Growing & Marketing Ginseng Goldenseal & Woodland Medicinals, Natural Cold Storage: Fresh Food in Winter, Keeping Crops Cool During Hot Weather: 13 Ways to Beat the Heat, Subscribe Today - Pay Now & Save 64% Off the Cover Price. This homemade overshot water wheel pumps 1,440 gallons of water a day at a total energy cost of three shots of grease a year. One very successful example of this "back to basics" trend is the water wheel-powered water pump now in operation on the Robert Wooding farm near Halifax, Virginia. If you really want to go for the finer points of maximum efficiency, however, you can work from the more detailed dimensions and angles given in the full-page drawing of an overshot wheel on page 31 of MOTHER N0. It follows, then, that you can save yourself a sizable chunk of cash by working up the specifications for your own wheel .


which forces the fresh spring water 100 feet uphill (through a line buried beneath the frost line) to a 500-gallon storage tank which stands near the blooding house. . The overshot water wheels were highly developed in medieval times and were not replaced by water turbines and electric motors until the 19 th century.

13 and 14 at $2.00 apiece from the ad on pages 114-115 of this issue, or[3] you can get your own copy - $1.95 plus 75¢ shipping and handling — of The Handbook of Homemade Power by using the MOTHER's Bookshelf ad on pages 174 -177 of this issue. but that's as far as their luck went. Water from the spring 120 feet away runs a couple of feet downhill to fill the cement reservoir. . https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_overshot_water-wheel&oldid=969922149, Articles with weasel words from June 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 July 2020, at 05:05. The remains of such systems found in Roman mines by later mining operations show that they were used in sequences so as to lift water a considerable height. This spring, too (just like their dam), is located about 120 feet from the overshot wheel and pump that is the heart of the whole hookup.

As water pours down over one side of the mounted wheel and turns it, the spinning of the wheel is converted to an up-and-down pumping motion by an eccentric arm attached to the assembly's two-inch-thick main shaft.

The pipe's inlet is covered with a screen to keep the line from becoming clogged with misguided leaves, turtles, and crawfish. ", The Woodings' flume is a combination of approximately 85 feet of four-inch aluminum pipe feeding into an additional 46 1/2 feet of wooden trough measuring six inches deep by six inches wide. According to Oliver Davies, one such sequence discovered at Ruda in Hunedoara County in modern Romania was 75 metres (246 ft) deep. .

except a few cents for lubrication. If you try to finish-weld each one as you go without tacking everything together first, you know, you can get off kilter and warp the whole wheel.". .

Fall, as the name implies, is the amount of vertical distance that running water drops as it moves down a stream (if there were no fall at all, the water — obviously — wouldn't run and the stream wouldn't be a stream . Already a Member but The upper end of the connecting rod (think of it as the hand holding the handle of an old-fashioned "armstrong" water pump) is bolted to a cross-arm that runs across the top of a reservoir and is secured to a red cedar post on the other side so that it can hinge up and down. . Multiple sequences of water wheels were used elsewhere in the Roman Empire, such as the famous example at Barbegal in southern France. The pump-powered by a home designed and home-built 6 1/2-foot, steel water wheel which, in turn, is spun by water from a stream on the family farm shoves 1,440 gallons of pure spring water 100 feet uphill every 24 hours. — The Editors. One final note: The following article describes a homemade overshot water wheel set up to do only one thing . . Every one of the six "ears", or extensions, on each of the two hubs has a recessed area 3/8 inches deep by two inches wide by four inches long on its inside surface for a spoke to set into. Luckily for the Woodings, the spring water's temperature stays 52 degrees Fahrenheit year round.

But Bob Wooding decided to use rot-free, corrosion-free aluminum pipe for the first two-thirds of his wheel's feeder line, where the flume had to extend into the water and then run underground.


That piece was also reprinted in The Handbook of Homemade Power. and a lot of other farmsteads in the country could put a variation of the same idea into use right now. . In 1776 Smeaton became the first to use a cast-iron wheel, and two years later he introduced cast-iron gearing, thereby bringing to an end the all-wood construction that had prevailed since Roman…. . and that's why THE MOTHER EARTH NEWS asked for — and received — permission to reprint the whole series as a two-part article in MOTHER NOs. but anything even remotely approaching this ideal will handle the job satisfactorily in most homestead applications).

The dam's height of three feet plus the additional four feet of drop we picked up by running our flume that tar added up to the seven feet of fall, or head, that we needed for our wheel. 14. The Woodings' 500-gallon storage tank is easily filled overnight by their homemade overshot water wheel. Once he had all the components for his wheel prefabbed and in hand, there was nothing for Bob Wooding to do but assemble the power unit.

), Bob had the individual parts for his water wheel prefabbed by the Carolina Steel Company in Greensboro, North Carolina. In the 1930s, a fragment of a wooden bucket from a drainage wheel was found in deep workings at the Dolaucothi gold mine in west Wales, and is now preserved in the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff. And, as the wheel turns, the pump in the reservoir pumps . .

This system was also a stack of 16 wheels but worked like a normal overshot wheel, the wheels driving stone mills and used to grind grains. Canadian subscriptions: 1 year (includes postage & GST). This end of each spoke is held firmly in place with two 7/16 inch galvanized bolts, nuts, and lock washers. .

account? ), After drawing up his design (complete with "dribble" hole in the bottom of each bucket, so that the wheel is self-draining when not in use!

It should also be pointed out that the distance (16 inches) between the two hubs is four inches wider than the distance (12 inches) across the buckets on the rim. And there's something rather nice about the whole arrangement. At the same time, a great deal more water from the dam — also about 120 feet away but in a slightly different direction — flows through the flume and pours down over one side of the 6 1/2-foot water wheel, causing it to turn. Although the blooding family's water system for their house, stables, and swimming pool is powered by the stream on their farm . Register now to get access to ALL current video workshops and prerecorded webinars plus anything new that we add through the end of 2020. All you'll need to add to this information is a free-flowing stream .

The final variant is an endless chains of buckets, and much greater lifts can be achieved, although greater effort is needed. You can add on another $70 for burning, forming, and welding the metal. And in the middle of that cross-arm — just off center in favor of the water wheel — is attached a cylinder rod which runs down to a cylinder pump that is firmly bolted to the bottom of the reservoir. Frequently used in mines and probably elsewhere (such as agricultural drainage), the reverse overshot water wheel was a Roman innovation to help remove water from the lowest levels of underground workings. This "arm", to be truthful, is not really an arm at all . It is not an isolated example, because Oliver Davies mentions examples from the Tharsis copper mine and Logroño in Spain, as well as from Dacia. About all we do is give its bearings a shot of grease two or three times a year.". The Woodings were fortunate enough to have a picturesque stream on their property (the first and most obvious requirement for any water-power system!)

Two, the overshot design of our wheel makes very efficient use of the small stream we tap for power. And that's all there is to the Wooding stream-run, spring-fed water system. It is described by Vitruvius in his work De architectura published circa 25 BC.

Irrigation of farmland would have been the most popular application, but any activity which involved lifting water would have employed the devices. which, as we all know, is commonly called a dam. .

don't have an online ), "We needed about a seven-foot fall for our 6 1/2-foot-tall wheel," Bob blooding remembers, "so we built a three-foot-tall dam . "The only real trick to the whole thing," says Bob Wooding, "is taking what you already have and using it to your best advantage. No doubt the reverse water wheel was easier to use with a horizontal treading surface. . You may also use the Bill Me option and pay $17.95 for 6 issues. A Richmond, Virginia representative for the firm says that the 3/16 inch steel plate used in the 980-pound assembly's 37 eight-by-twelve-inch buckets, its five-inch-wide rim, and its one-foot-wide sole plate would currently cost about $130.

When it reaches to the top of the turn, the water runs out into a channel. . We spent a little time and money setting our system up, to be sure, but it's been practically maintenance-free ever since. The "splash-splosh" of the water wheel is far more relaxing and natural than any huffing-puffing engine .

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